Print ISSN: 1811-9212

Online ISSN: 2617-3352

Issue 2,

Issue 2


Visible Light Fidelity Technology: Survey

Kawther Dawood Salman; Ekhlas Kadum Hamza

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 1-15

Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) is particularly popular today. Every place has
hotspots to access the internet via Wi-Fi, including homes, offices, colleges, and other
public places. This increased number of users, and hence the use of bandwidth, has led to
radio spectrum congestion. Thus, in the year of 2011, Light-Fidelity (Li-Fi) was
introduced, which applies a visible light region for data transmission, to solve this radio
crisis problem. This visible part of the spectrum was 10,000 times big compared to the
part utilized in the Wi-Fi radio. Furthermore, Li-Fi was a sub-set of Visible Light
Communication (VLC), using Light-Emitting Diode (LED) bulbs for transmitting data
utilizing light-medium. This paper reviews the differences between Li-Fi technology and
wireless types. It Also focuses on the architecture, components, functioning, modulation
technologies, and applications of Li-Fi.

FPGA-Based Multi-Core MIPS Processor Design

Sarah M. Al-sudany; .Ahmed S. Al-Araji1; Bassam M. Saeed

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 16-35

This research presents a study for multicore Reduced Instruction Set
Computer (RISC) processor implemented on the Field Programmable Gate
Array(FPGA).The Microprocessor without- Interlocked Pipeline Stages (MIPS)
processor is designed for the implementation of educational purposes, as well as it is
expected that this prototype of processor will be used for multimedia or big data
applications. 32- bit MIPS processor was designed by using Very High speed Hardware
Description Language (VHDL). Pipelined MIPS processor contains three parts that are :
data path 32-bit MIPS pipeline, control unit, and hazard unit. The single cycle MIPS
system was subdivided into five pipeline stages to achieve the pipeline MIPS processor.
The five parts include: instruction fetch (IF), Instruction Decode (ID), execution (EXE),
memory (MEM) and Write Back (WB). Three types of hazard: data hazard , control
hazard and strctural hazard are resolved. Certain components in the pipelined stage for
the design processor were iterated for four core SIMD pipelined processors. The MIPS is
developed using Xilinx ISE 14.7 design suite. The designed processor was implemented
successfully on Xilinx Virtex-6 XC6VLX240T-1FFG1156 FPGA. The total power
analysis of multi-core MIPS processor is obtanined 3.422 watt and the clock period was
7.329 ns (frequency: 136.444MHz).

Dual Architecture Deep Learning Based Object Detection System for Autonomous Driving

Mahmoud M. Mahmoud; Ahmed R. Nasser

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 36-43

Object detection of autonomous vehicles presents a big challenge for
researchers due to the requirements of accuracy and precision in real-time.
This work presents a deep learning approach based on a dual architecture
design of the network. A highly accurate multi-class network of convolutional
neural networks (CNN) is presented for input data classification. A Region-
Based Convolutional Neural Networks (Faster R-CNN) network with a modified
Feature Pyramid Networks (FPN) is used for better detection of tiny objects and
You Only Look Once (YOLOv3) network is used for general detection. Each
network independently detects the existence of an object. The decision maps are
then fused and compared to decide whether an object is present or not. Faster
R-CNN with FPN model reported a higher intersection over Union (IoU) and
mean average precision (mAP) than the YOLOv3. This approach is reliable
demonstrating an upgrade on the existing state-of-the-art methods of fully
connected networks.

An Optimal Path Planning Algorithms for a Mobile Robot

Omar Abdul Razzaq Abdul Wahhab; .Ahmed S. Al-Araji1

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 44-58

The goal of navigating a mobile robot is to find the optimal path to direct its
movement, so path planning is the best solution to find the optimal path. Therefore, the
two most important problems of path planning must be solved; the first is that the path
must avoid collision with obstacles, and second it must reduce the length of the path to a
minimum. This paper will discuss finding the shortest path with the optimum cost function
by using the Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization (CPSO), and A*, compare the results
between them and the proposed hybrid algorithm that combines A* and Chaotic Particle
Swarm Optimization (ACPSO) algorithms to enhance A* algorithm to find the optimal
path and velocities of the wheeled mobile robot. These algorithms are simulated by
MATLAB in a fixed obstacles environment to show the effectiveness of the proposed
algorithm in terms of minimum number of an evaluation function and the shortest path
length as well as to obtain the optimal or near optimal wheel velocities.

Implementation of Spectrum Sensing based OFDM Transceiver using Xilinx System Generator

Areej Munadel Kadhum; Ekhlas Kadum Hamza

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 59-69

with the introduction of new standards at a fast pace, wireless communication
is experiencing great development and growth, thereby raising the level of demand for
radio spectrum. The spectrum, however, is a limited resource and cannot be subdivided
indefinitely to satisfy any use. As a result, spectrum scarcity arises. This scarcity
represents the main problem that faces the future of wireless networks. This scarcity is
due to the inefficient fixed spectrum allocation technique. The Dynamic Spectrum Access
(DSA) is a successful solution to reduce the spectrum scarcity that wireless
communications currently face. DSA allows users without a spectrum license known as
Secondary Users (SUs) to temporarily use the unused licensed spectrum. This work
focuses on analysis, and design of the Cognitive Radio (CR) system forOrthogonal
Frequency Division Multiplexing modulation. The OFDM transceiver system has been
implemented in the first stage using the Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK)
modulation technique by Xilinx System Generator Inter-Symbol InterferenceSimulink
(XSG) based on MATLAB. The second stage of the proposed system is to design energy
detection of the OFDM transceiver. This system was analyzed under the Adaptive White
Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel based XSG. In this work, the energy detector is also
designed using the XSG ISE14.1 Simulink and obtained all the signals successfully.

Parallel Heat-Exchangers Network Optimization Using Sliding Mode Extremum Seeking with integral Anti Wind Up Scheme

Taha Adel Al-Gadery; Shibly Ahmed Al-Samarraie

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 70-84

In this paper, we study the Sliding Mode Extremum Seeking (SMES)
optimization method for a Heat Exchangers Network. The studied network is constructed
from plate Heat Exchangers, in which several thermal sources are used to heat a common
cold stream that is distributed between the several branches of the network. The
considered optimization problem is the optimization of the thermal power gained from
different hot sources. The control variables are the split ratios of the cold stream to the
different heat exchangers. The dynamical model for general Heat Exchanger Network
with (n) Heat Exchangers was driven and the special case of two Heat Exchangers in
parallel was considered as a case study. The SMES algorithm was modified with an
integral anti-windup scheme to constrain the search within the admissible region. The
simulation results obtained by using Matlab program confirmed the effectiveness of the
approach.

Fuzzy Like Pid Controller Based on Sso Design for Congestion Avoidance in Internet Router

Mohammed I. Berbek; Ahmed A. Oglah

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 85-101

today The topic of contention is the quality of computer network
service. Efficient data handling is important. Each router offers a buffer space
where packets can be held before being sent until they are processed. The
theory of packet congestion control is TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
.(AQM) is a mechanism proposed for gateways to improve congestion
management. AQM (active queue management) is a crucial to minimize packet
loss in TCP/IP networks and improving network efficiency. This paper offers a
hybrid intelligent (PID) with type1 fuzzy logic controller which is designed to
decrease network congestion. As a router (AQM), social spider optimization
(SSO) is used to tune the control parameters used to reduce queue size error.
The designed controller based on SSO algorithm provides a good tracking
performance for AQM desired value.The observational findings indicated a
high-performance increase in the proposed process. In MATLAB(R2020a), a
simulation of a linearized TCP/AQM model is presented. NS2 is used to perform
verification for the fuzzy logic controllers for the nonlinear TCP/AQM model
under a more practical simulation and to analyze and examine network
behavior in different scenarios.

A Comparative Study of Researches Based on Magic Square in Encryption with Proposing a New Technology

Ibrahim Malik ALattar; Abdul Monem S Rahma

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 102-114

This paper aims to develop a new cryptographic algorithm that is
based on the magic square method of order five with multi message lengths to
be more complex in order to increase the complexity; in addition to comparing
the cipher with the use of the magic square of order five, four and three (all
single message length. The proposed work has been done by using two extra
rounds and depending on round statuse ( even or odd) , messages are detected
to be used. The key is placed in agreed positions, then the remaining positions
are filled with the message, and then certain sums are calculated to represent
the encrypted text. Speed, complexity, histogram calculations for images, and
NIST calculations for texts were calculated, and the results were compared,
where the complexity of the algorithms was as follows ((P)15 × (256)10)2 × (P)11
× (256)14 and ((256)15 × (256)10)2 × (256)11 × (256)14 for GF(P) and GF(28)
respectively , From that, it has been discovered that the proposed algorithm
(Magic Square of order five with multi message length) is better than the rest of
the algorithms as it has excellent complexity and a slight difference in the
speed.

Comparison of Three Proposal Methods in Steganography Encryption Secret Message using PVD and MapReduce

Huda Ghazie Abd UL Sahib; Maisa Abid Ali Khodher

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 115-131

This paper will present a comparison between three proposed methods. All of these methods
include hiding a secret message inside a video for the aim of transferring it to another party with high
security and a high embedding rate in order to ensure that the secret message is not discovered by the
attacker. In addition , facilitating deals with video frames as large data for the purpose of analyzing,
dividing and controlling frames easily by the programmer, using the MapReduce method. This is
done by dividing the video into a series of frames, and before the hiding process, the message is
encrypted using the advance encryption standard (AES) algorithm. These basic processes are
implemented in all three proposed methods, the rest of the details for each method are:
The first method: used the pixel value difference (PVD) algorithm to hide the secret message in the
video. In addition, the stego secret key was also used. This key is used for the purpose of deciding the
locations of the pixels that will be employed to hide the secret message inside it.
The second method: the MapReduce principle is used for the purpose of facilitating dealing with
video frames. The chosen frame will enter the MapReduce stages. This is implemented by dividing the
frame into three matrices red, green, blue (RGB). Each matrix represents a map. Moreover, the
technique that is used for concealment is the least significant bit (LSB) technology which uses the
stego secret key (x2) for the purpose of selecting sites that will be hidden by it.
The third method: Also, the MapReduce principle is used, but this method is implemented by dividing
the frame into four blocks. Each block represents a map. In one of the stages of the MapReduce, the
hiding process will be done by using the (PVD) method which uses the stego secret key (n+15).
Finally, the reducer, which is the last stage, will collect the results of each block to generate the
stego-frame.
The results of the three methods are efficiency, transparency, robustness and powerful in stego
video. It is noticed that the second method has achieved the lowest capacity, thus achieving high
security. As for the third method, it achieved the highest capacity and the highest execution time was
the first method. Despite this, all the three methods have achieved high security. The attacker or
unauthorized person cannot detect any suspicious differences in a stego video. These results are
obtained through using many measurements: peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), Mean Squared Error
(MSE), Entropy and correlation coefficient.

Assessment of Service Departments in the Governorates Through Social Media Comments

Sura Sabah Rasheed; Ahmed T. Sadiq

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 132-142

Social media have been increasing obviously and widely due to the fact that it is a media
for users who express their emotions using reviews and comments on a variety of areas in life. In the
present study, a modest model has been suggested for the assessment of service departments with the
use of reviews and comments in social media pages of those departments from various governorates.
The utilization of the text mining for the sentiment classification has been used through collecting
Iraqi dialect reviews on service department pages on Facebook to be analyzed with the use of the
sentiment analysis to track the emotions from the comments and posts. Those have been classified
after that to positive, neutral or negative comment with the use of the algorithms of Naive Bayesian,
Rough Set Theory, and K-Nearest Neighbors. Out of 13 Iraqi capital (Baghdad) service departments
have been tackled, it has been found that 11% of those departments had very good assessment, 18%
from these service departments have good assessment, 21% from these service departments have
medium assessment, 24% from these service departments have acceptance assessment and 26% from
these service departments have bad assessment. The results of the evaluation showed the poor
services provided by service departments in the capital Baghdad. Experimental results were helpful
for the service departments in improving their work and programs had responded quickly and
sufficiently to the customer demands.