Volume 22, Issue 3, Summer 2022, Page 1-154


A Convolutional Neural Network for Detecting COVID-19 from Chest X-ray Images

Basma Abdullah; Hanaa Ahmed

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 1-14
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33103/uot.ijccce.22.3.1

since the global pandemic of COVID-19 has spread out, the use of Artificial Intelligence to analyze Chest X-Ray (CXR) image for COVID-19 diagnosis and patient treatment is becoming more important. This research hypothesized that using COVID19 radiographic changes in the X-Ray images. Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems may extract certain graphical elements regarding COVID-19 and offer a clinical diagnosis ahead of pathogenic test; therefore, saving vital time for disease prevention. Employing 2614 CXR radiographs from Kaggle data collection of verified COVID-19 cases and healthy persons, a new Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model that is inspired by the Xception architecture was presented for the diagnosis of coronavirus pneumonia infected patients. The suggested technique reached an average validation accuracy of 0.99, precision of 0.95, recall of 0.92, and F1-score of 0. 95. Finally, such findings revealed that the Deep Learning (DL) technique has the potential to decrease frontline radiologists' stress, enhance early diagnosis, treatment, and isolation; therefore, aid in epidemic control.

Meerkat Clan-Based Feature Selection in Random Forest Algorithm for IoT Intrusion Detection

Adil Hussein; Ahmed Sadiq

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 15-24
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33103/uot.ijccce.22.3.2

Hackerscanconductmoredestructivecyber-attacksthankstotherapidspread of Internet of Things (IoT) devices, posing significant security risks for users. Through a malicious process, the attacker intended to exhaust the capital of the target IoT network. Researchers and company owners are concerned about the reliability of IoT networks, which is taken into account because it has a significant impact on the delivery of facilities provided by IoT systems and the security of user groups. The intrusion prevention system ensures that the network is protected by detecting malicious activity. In this paper, the focus is on predicting attacks and distinguishing between normal network use and network exploitation for intrusion and network attack and we will use Swarm Intelligence (SI) which is one of the types of artificial intelligence (AI) that we harness to choose features to determine the task of them and specifically we will use an algorithm Meerkat Clan (MCA) for this purpose, as this research suggested a modified IDS in machine learning (ML) based IoT environments to identify features and these features will be input into Random Forest algorithm. The IoTID20 dataset is used where nominal traits are removed, so the final dataset contains 79 traits. The data set contains three categories: the label that identifies whether it is a natural use or exploitation, the category that characterizes the type of exploitation, and the subcategory that describes that exploitation more accurately. The number of trees in a random forest (RF) classifier for binary, class, and subclass will be determined by the experiment. The trained classifier is then tested and the approach achieves 100% accuracy for binary target prediction, 96.5% for category and accuracy ranges of 83.7% for sub-category target prediction. The proposed system is evaluated and compared with previous systems and its performance is shown through the use of confusion matrix and others.

An Efficient Electronic Payment Using Biometric Authentication

Ahmed Talib; Aymen Salman

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 25-33

Traditional identification techniques for electronic payments, such as the Personal Identification Number (PIN), are becoming outdated and unsafe, while mobile payments are becoming more popular and widely used. It presents a risk to issuers since there is no reliable consumer verification method available, and the lack of safe and reliable e-payment systems is one of the key issues restricting progress. As a result, efforts have been made to develop and maintain a unified payment system that is well-organized, efficient, dependable, and secure. This system avoids the need for physical cash while also still satisfying all payment and identification requirements, a safe and trustworthy method is required for the country's successful adoption of an e-payment system. This article focuses on the future of online payment and the security problems through using effective biometric authentication technologies to provide a trustworthy authentication method for an e-payment system.

Robust Sensor Fault Estimation for Control Systems Affected by Friction Force

Ruaa Ahmed; Montadher Shaker

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 34-47
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33103/uot.ijccce.22.3.4

The paper presents an observer-based estimation of sensor fault for control systems affected by friction force. In such systems, the non-linearity of friction force leads to deteriorating sensor fault estimation capability of the observer. Hence, the challenge is to design an observer capable of attaining robust sensor fault estimation while avoiding the effects of friction. To overcome the highlighted challenge, an Unknown Input Observer (UIO) is designed to decouple the effects of friction as well as to estimate the state and sensor fault.The benefit of proposing UIO is to guarantee robust sensor fault estimation despite the highly non-linear disturbance in the form of friction. The gains of the UIO are computed through a singlestep linear matrix inequality. Finally, an inverted pendulum simulation is presented to demonstrate the novel approach's performance effectiveness.



Index Terms—Robust fault estimation; Fault-Tolerant control; unknown input observer; Friction force; estimation/decoupling approach.
Index Terms—Robust fault estimation; Fault-Tolerant control; unknown input observer; Friction force; estimation/decoupling approach.

RCAE_BFV: Retrieve Encrypted Images using Convolution AutoEncoder and BFV

Emad Alsaedi; Alaa Farhan

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 48-61
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33103/uot.ijccce.22.3.5

Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) is an actual application in computer vision, which retrieves similar images from a database. Deep Learning (DL) is essential in many applications, including image retrieval applications. However, encryption techniques are used to protect data privacy because these data are vulnerable to being viewed by unauthorized parties while being transmitted over unsecured channels.
This paper includes two parts for images retrieval. In the first part, features of all images of a Canadian Institute for Advanced Research CIFAR-10 dataset were extracted and stored on the Server-side. In the second part, the Brakerski/Fan-Vercauteren (BFV) homomorphic encryption scheme method for encrypting an image sent by the client-side. First, their decryption and image features are extracted depending on the trainer model when they arrive on the server-side. Then an extracted features are compared with stored features using the Cosine Distance method, and then the server encrypts the retrieved images and sends them to the client-side. Deep-learning results on plain images were 97% for classification and 96.7% for retriever images. At the same time, TheNational Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST ) test was used to check the security of BFV when applied to CIFAR-10 dataset.

Intelligent Parameter Tuning using Deep Q-network in Adaptive Queue Management Systems

Ayman Yousif; Hassan Jaleel; Ghaida Muttasher

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 62-71
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33103/uot.ijccce.22.3.6

Network traffic has risen in recent years to the point that it is obviously and astonishingly in 2020, with the increase predicted to double in the following days. Up to 23 Teraa bit every month is an incredible amount. The Active Queue Management (AQM) algorithm is one of the most significant study areas in network congestion control; nevertheless, new self-learning network management algorithms are needed on nodes to cope with the huge quantity of traffic and minimize queuing latency, used reinforcement learning for automatic adaptive parameter with the AQM algorithm for effective network management, and present a novel AQM algorithm that focuses on deep reinforcement learning to deal with latency and the trade-off between queuing delay and throughput; choose Deep Q-Network (DQN) as the foundation for our scheme and equate it with Random Early Detection (RED) Results based on Network simulation (NS3) simulation suggest that the DQN algorithm has good and better results were obtained from RED, where the difference reached a drop rate of 2%, and this percentage is considered good, in addition to the percentage of throughput and the packet transfer rate of 3% is better in the proposed algorithm.

Collision Prediction Based on Vehicular Communication System

Abdulqader Jabbar; Rana Ghani; Asia Salman

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 72-80
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33103/uot.ijccce.22.3.7

Road traffic accidents are one of the leading causes of mortality globally. Reducing the number of traffic-related incidents has become a serious socio-economic and public health problem, given the ever-increasing number of cars on the road. As a result, this paper proposes an intelligent vehicle prediction communication mechanism that alerts drivers to any autos that may be overtaking or bypassing the targeted vehicle. The primary goal of this paper is to leverage modern Internet of Things (IoT) and wireless sensor technologies to predict any potential accident that may occur as a result of car accidents. This paper proposes the Collision Prediction of a Moving Vehicle (CPMV) system. The information acquired by CPMV will alert the driver to divert the vehicle in a reasonable amount of time before any harm occurs. It redirects the inbound object that emitted the Ultrasound signal which was received by the vehicle, to a safe location. The proposed system predicts collision between vehicles through Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, using a set of sensors with a precision of 360 degrees and a distance of collision prediction of one meter and at a speed of 200-300 revolutions per minute. The python programming language was utilized to code the programs that control the vehicle during the implementation of this project. The Raspberry Pi 4 is utilized as the controller to examine the vehicle’s spatial data. The test results showed that using this application to deal with an approaching object can be a successful strategy in the three proposed scenarios at different angles and directions.

A Framework for Predicting Airfare Prices Using Machine Learning

Heba Fadhil; Mohammed Abdullah; Mohammed Younis

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 81-96
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33103/uot.ijccce.22.3.8

Many academics have concentrated on applying machine learning to retrieve information from databases to enable researchers to perform better. A difficult issue in prediction models is the selection of practical strategies that yield satisfactory forecast accuracy. Traditional software testing techniques have been extended to testing machine learning systems; however, they are insufficient for the latter because of the diversity of problems that machine learning systems create. Hence, the proposed methodologies were used to predict flight prices. A variety of artificial intelligence algorithms are used to attain the required, such as Bayesian modeling techniques such as Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD), Adaptive boosting (ADA), Decision Trees (DT), K- nearest neighbor (KNN), and Logistic Regression (LR), have been used to identify the parameters that allow for effective price estimation. These approaches were tested on a data set of an extensive Indian airline network. When it came to estimating flight prices, the results demonstrate that the Decision tree method is the best conceivable Algorithm for predicting the price of a flight in our particular situation with 89% accuracy. The SGD method had the lowest accuracy, which was 38 %, while the accuracies of the KNN, NB, ADA, and LR algorithms were 69 %, 45 %, and 43 %, respectively. This study's presented methodologies will allow airline firms to predict flight prices more accurately, enhance air travel, and eliminate delay dispersion.

Hybridized Dimensionality Reduction Method for Machine Learning based Web Pages Classification

Thabit Sabbah

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 97-110
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33103/uot.ijccce.22.3.9

Feature space high dimensionality is a well-known problem in text classification and web mining domains, it is caused mainly by the large number of vocabularies contained within web documents. Several methods were applied to select the most useful and important features over the years; however, the performance of such methods is still improvable from different aspects such as the computational cost and accuracy. This research presents an enhanced cosine similarity-based hybridization of two efficient feature selection methods for higher classification performance. The reduced feature sets are generated using the Random Projection (RP) and the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) methods, individually, then hybridized based on the cosine similarity values between features’ vectors. The performance of the proposed method in terms of accuracy and F-measure was tested on a dataset of web pages based on several term weighting schemes. As compared to relevant methods, results of the proposed method show significantly higher accuracy and f-measure performance based on less feature set size.

Unmasking Deepfakes Based on Deep Learning and Noise Residuals

Wildan Jameel; Suhad Kadhem; Ayad Abbas

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 111-117
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33103/uot.ijccce.22.3.10

The main reason for the emergence of a deepfake (deep learning and fake) term is the evolution in artificial intelligence techniques, especially deep learning. Deep learning algorithms, which auto-solve problems when giving large sets of data, are used to swap faces in digital media to create fake media with a realistic appearance. To increase the accuracy of distinguishing a real video from fake one, a new model has been developed based on deep learning and noise residuals. By using Steganalysis Rich Model (SRM) filters, we can gather a low-level noise map that is used as input to a light Convolution neural network (CNN) to classify a real face from fake one. The results of our work show that the training accuracy of the CNN model can be significantly enhanced by using noise residuals instead of RGB pixels. Compared to alternative methods, the advantages of our method include higher detection accuracy, lowest training time, a fewer number of layers and parameters.

Automatic Quality of Experience Measuring for Video Conference in Real-Time

Roaa Alhassany; Rana Ghani

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 118-127
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33103/uot.ijccce.22.3.11

In recent years, especially with COVID-19, video conference applications have become very important. Millions of peoples around the world have become to communicate with each other through using video conference applications. The most critical factor in the performance success of video conference applications is the user's perception of the quality of the experience. In this work, an Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) model was proposed for predicting video quality of experience. The proposed system extracts several features from videos that have a significant impact on the quality of the experience. The model performance was validated with unseen data. Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient (SRCC), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Pearson’s Linear Correlation Coefficient (PLCC) metrics have been used to measure the accuracy of the model and correlation. The results demonstrate that the proposed model had better performance than models used by the previous researchers that were used for predicting video QoE in terms of precision, correlation, and running time.

Optimizing Artificial Neural Networks Using Levy- Chaotic Mapping on Wolf Pack Optimization Algorithm for Detect Driving Sleepiness

Sarah Jasim; Alia Abdul Hassan; Scott Turner

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 128-136
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33103/uot.ijccce.22.3.12

Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are utilized to solve a variety of problems in many domains. In this type of network, training and selecting parameters that define networks architecture play an important role in enhancing the accuracy of the network's output; Therefore, Prior to training, those parameters must be optimized. Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO) has been considered one of the efficient developed approaches in the Swarm Intelligence area that is used to solve real-world optimization problems. However, GWO still faces a problem of the slump in local optimums in some places due to insufficient diversity. This paper proposes a novel algorithm Levy Flight- Chaotic Chen mapping on Wolf Pack Algorithm in Neural Network. It efficiently exploits the search regions to detect driving sleepiness and balance the exploration and exploitation operators, which are considered implied features of any stochastic search algorithm. Due to the lack of dataset availability, a dataset of 15 participants has been collected from scratch to evaluate the proposed algorithm's performance. The results show that the proposed algorithm achieves an accuracy of 99.3%.

SNOW3G Modified by using PLL Algorithms in Magic Cube

Rana Zaki; Hala Abdul wahab

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 137-146
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33103/uot.ijccce.22.3.13

Thomas and Patrik are working on a stream cipher called SNOW 3G. In 2006, it was chosen as the centerpiece of a new set of confidentiality and integrity algorithms for the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS). In 2008, Böhm published an article named "Statistical Evaluation of Stream Cipher SNOW 3G." He put the randomness of the SNOW 3G key stream generator to the test. As a randomness test tool, Böhm uses the NIST test statistics package, which consists of three kinds of tests: lengthy key stream data, short key stream data, and initialization vector data. Only the short key stream set of data failed eight random chance test results out of three kinds of tests, according to the report's findings. The SNOW 3G suggestions, he claims, fail due to a flaw with in cipher's initialization. In this paper, we use the PLL algorithm to modify the SNOW 3G algorithm for key initialization and generation keystream. We employ the same itself Böhm employed. The modify SNOW 3G algorithm exceed whole of the statistic exam in a experiment. The findings show that PLL has an effect on algorithm randomness.

The Techniques of Based Internet Key Exchange (IKE) Protocol to Secure Key Negotiation

Zainab Mahyob; Raheem Ogla; Suhiar Zeki

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2022, Volume 22, Issue 3, Pages 147-154
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33103/uot.ijccce.22.3.14

The Internet is a massive network that connects millions of users from all over the world and the data transmitted via it needs great protection, especially since that are in the age of big data. To solve part of this problem, IPsec was utilized, which is a set of protocols necessary to offer security to units of the Internet in general and the IP layer in particular. It is mostly based on major exchange protocols. The most frequent mechanism for transferring key materials and establishing security linkages between two entities is Internet Key Exchange (IKE). In the present work, it is proposed to use a public key that works together with Diffie-Hellman cryptography and the main advantages of a single-stage contribution (as opposed to the two-stage in standard IKE) it is better in terms of improved transfer and time (more time for the corresponding negotiation) to make the proposed IKE more secure with Simple account constraints