About Journal

The Iraqi Journal of Computers, Communications, Control, and Systems Engineering (IJCCCE) is a quarterly engineering journal issued by the University of Technology /Baghdad, aiming to enrich the knowledge in computer, communication, and control fields.
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Journal Information

Publisher: University of Technology

Email:  [email protected]

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Jawad K. Ali

Print ISSN: 1811-9212

Online ISSN: 2617-3352

Predicting Incident Duration Based on Machine Learning Methods

Zainab Ali Mohammed; Mohammed Najm Abdullah2; Imad Husain Al Hussaini

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 1-15

Traffic incidents dont only cause various levels of traffic congestion but often contribute to traffic accidents and secondary accidents, resulting in substantial loss of life, economy, and productivity loss in terms of injuries and deaths, increased travel times and delays, and excessive consumption of energy and air pollution. Therefore, it is essential to accurately estimate the duration of the incident to mitigate these effects. Traffic management center incident logs and traffic sensors data from Eastbound Interstate 70 (I-70) in Missouri, United States collected during the period from January 2015 to January 2017, with a total of 352 incident records were used to develop incident duration estimation models. This paper investigated different machine learning (ML) methods for traffic incidents duration prediction. The attempted ML techniques include Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random Forest (RF), and Neural Network Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP). Root mean squared error (RMSE) and Mean absolute error (MAE) were used to evaluate the performance of these models. The results showed that the performance of the models was comparable with SVM models slightly outperforms the RF, and MLP models in terms of MAE index, where MAE was 14.23 min for the best-performing SVM models. Whereas, in terms of the RMSE index, RF models slightly outperformed the other two models given RMSE of 18.91 min for the best-performing RF model.

Hybrid Model for PAPR Minimization in OFDM System

Mohammed A. Hussein1; Ala'a. H. Ali; Ali K. Nahar3

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 16-30

The technology has been growing rapidly in the form of portable wireless devices that can perform multiple functions to cope with the state-of-the-art technology and synchronization. A total device capacity must be increased to accommodate new wireless applications. This can be achieved by leveraging new technologies, with higher data rates. Spectrum pooling has gained immense popularity, with increased demand for frequency range and bandwidth availability constraints. Statistics suggest that much of the spectrum licensed is not used all the time. Because of the transmitter's nonlinearity nature, the large (peak to average power ratio (PAPR)) phenomenon is a drawback in orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). Several hybrid approaches have recently been implemented to minimize PAPR's high value, at the expense of increasing the level of computational complexity in the system. In this paper, a new hybrid approach has been introduced in parallel to combine the selective mapping approach (SLM) with the partial transmit sequence (PTS) approach to improve the efficiency of PAPR reduction with lower numerical method complexity. The findings reveal that the OFDM systems with the proposed hybrid approach have better efficiency in terms of PAPR elimination, side-information, and computational complexity compared to current hybrid methods. Also, a hybrid approach proposed output could be maintained without degradation.

Photonic Crystal Fiber Sensor for X Ray Approximate Effective Radiation Dose

Raghad hani1; Ayad Z. Mohammed; Bushra R. Mahdi3

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 32-38

X-ray is electromagnetic wave pass through all human tissue and show tissue image by black and white, and the explosion for x ray in short treatment may cause cancer, Photonic crystal fiber used as detector for x- ray approximate effective radiation dose for human bone for spine x- ray 1.5 mSv which need 6month to repeat the exposure and extremity (foot, hand and etc.) x-ray 0.001 mSv need to 3 hours to repeat exposure , the change in x ray dose can be detected by measuring the change in wavelength shifting of laser 450nm which pass through photonic crystal fiber and effected by the emission of x-ray to record the small change in x-ray dose and save the human from radiation and this sensor is small compact and easy to use and have high sensitivity for x -ray used to measure the bone x-ray as its value lower than other x-ray used in others tissue.

An Overview on a Technique to Measure and Control of the Electromagnetic Radiation Inside a Microwave Oven

Farah A. Thamer1; Haitham B. Al-Wakeel2; Taghreed Mohammadridha; Zeyid T. Ibraheem2

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 39-53

The Microwave oven is a system used to convert the electromagnetic
energy to thermal energy when the microwave cavity is loaded with a dielectric
material. The ordinary microwave ovens are not supported with complex
features for detecting parameters such as temperature, weight, and loaded
material availability. Due to the lack of material availability, several laboratory
and industrial applications require these features to switch off the oven. The
reflections of electromagnetic radiation inside an empty microwave oven lead to
oven damage. An overview of the microwave oven characteristics and
emergence of electromagnetic radiation inside a microwave oven is presented
in this study. The parameters measured inside the microwave oven, methods for
power attenuation in a microwave oven, microwave power detector, and
microwave oven leakage are discussed as well. Moreover in the methodology of
this work, proposed a new technique based on the measurement of leaked
microwave power to control the microwave oven. The preliminary results
showed that the leakage measurement of electromagnetic power changes with
the state/phase of the material inside the microwave oven, which ensured the
possibility of the proposed promising technique. This work will be continued to
connect the microwave oven with a spectrum analyzer and computer via
hardware and software interfaces depending on the methodology of this article.
A computer code will be developed to read the measured power and
automatically switch off the microwave oven depending on materials state.

Application of Self-Managing System in Greenhouse with Wireless Sensor Network

Dhuha Dheyaa Khudhur; Muayad Sadik Croock

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 55-63

It is well known that the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a part of different fields of modern life (self-managing life). The automation of operating the WSN without any need for human efforts develops the technique used in this network in terms of power consumption, costs, and so on. In this paper, the WSN application that adopts the self-managing property is presented as well as applying this property in a greenhouse as a case study. It uses remote controlling technology for data exchanging in a multi-layer WSN. Different hardware and software equipment have been employed in the application based on self-managing techniques. Such hardware includes (NodeMCU ESP8266) as a microcontroller, Raspberry pi3 as a base station that captures the sensor reading from the node. Additionally, it was utilized two types of sensors (DS18B20, soil moisture) to sense the environmental parameters such as temperature and soil moisture and two actuators (LED1, LED2). The results show the proper performance of the presented WSN in terms of the self-managing side by checking the received data in real-time mode. These results are achieved for the threshold values of 25ᵒC temperature and 500 soil moisture as an upper level for operating the actuators.

Video Compression Based on FPGA Using SIMD Architecture

Hayder Waleed Shnain1; Mohammed Najm Abdullah2; Hassan Awheed Jeiad3

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 1, Pages 65-75

Recently, video files and images have became the dominant media material for transmitting or storing across different applications that are used by different people. So, there was a serious need to find more effective and efficient video compression techniques to reduce the large size of such multimedia files. This paper proposes SIMD based FPGA lossless JPEG video compression system with the facility of scalability. Generally, the proposed system consists of a software side and a hardware side. The digital video file is prepared to be processed by the hardware side frame by frame on the software side. The hardware side is proposed to consist of two main processing circuits, which are the prediction circuit for calculating the predicted value of each pixel in the certain frame and the encoding circuit that was represented by a modified RLE (Run-Length-Encoder) to encode the result obtained through subtracting the predicted value from the real value for each pixel to produce the final compressed video file. The compression ratio obtained for the proposed system is equal to 1.7493. The throughput improvement for the two and four processing units basing on SIMD architecture was 100 MP/s and 200 MP/s, respectively. The clock results showed that the number of clocks required had become 50% and 25% when using two processing units and four processing units, respectively, from the number of clocks using single processing units.

Implement Wireless Transceiver System Based On Convolutional Coding; Aided by Soft-Bit Decoding

Israa Hazem Ali

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 49-55

The main aim with any modern digital communication systems is to provide error free data transmission. To achieve this aim, error control coding techniques are applied with these systems. In this paper, digital communication system was implemented based on convolutional code, aided by soft-bit decoding for error free transmission. Fixed length source encoder was represented with this work, and statistically described the output of the source encoder and save this description at the receiver as a priori knowledge about the source encode. These a priori knowledge were exploited at the receiver to improve the performance of the proposed system in term of BER by conceal the errors occurred through the transmission of information over AWGN channel, aided the convolutional encoder. Significant improvements were obtained with this proposed system.

Positively Invariant Sets in Sliding Mode Control Theory with Application to Servo Actuator System with Friction*

Dr. Shibly Ahmed AL-Samarraie

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 121-134

Abstract:
In this paper two invariant sets are derived for a second order nonlinear affine system using a sliding mode controller. If the state started in these sets, it will not leave it for all future time. The invariant set is found function to the initial condition only, from which the state bound is estimated and used when determining the gain of the sliding mode controller. This step overcomes an arithmetic difficulty that consists of calculating suitable controller gain value that ensures the attractiveness of the switching manifold. Also, by using a differentiable form for the approximate signum function in sliding mode controller formula, the state will converge to a positively invariant set rather than the origin. The size of this set is found function to the parameters that can be chosen by the designer, thus, it enables us to control the size of the steady state error. The sliding mode controller is designed to the servo actuator system with friction where the derived invariant sets are used in the calculation of the sliding mode controller gain. The friction model is represented by the major friction components; Coulomb friction, the Stiction friction, and the viscous friction. The simulation results demonstrate the rightness of the derived sets and the ability of the differentiable sliding mode controller to attenuate the friction effect and regulate the state to the positively invariant set with a prescribed steady state error.

UNIQUE LIPS FEATURES EXTRACTION

Prof. Dr. Abdul Monem S. Rahma; Dr. Abdul Hamza A. Abdul Karim

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 60-68

Speech recognition based on visual information such as the lip shape and its
movement is referred to as lip reading. The visual features are derived according to the
frame rate of the video sequence. The proposed work adopted in this paper is based
upon the lower part of the human face to extract the speaker sound relevant features
accurately and robustly from the inner edge of the lips and trace it acoustically to prove
its unique features and the possibility of merging it with sound features by measuring
their physiological or behavioral characteristics curves. The results were promising and
offered a good reaction: 94% - 100%.

Static Stability Analysis of Hexagonal Hexapod Robot for the Periodic Gaits†

Hind Z. Khaleel; Dr. Firas A. Raheem

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 10-20

Abstract –Hexagonal hexapod robot is a flexible mechanical robot with six legs. It
has the ability to walk over terrain. The hexapod robot likes insect so it has the same
periodic gaits. These gaits are tripod, wave and ripple gaits. Hexapod robot needs to
stay statically stable at all the times during each gait in order not to fall with three or
more legs continuously contacts with the ground. The safety static stability walking can
be indicated by the stability margin. In this paper we based on the forward, inverse
kinematics for each hexapod’s leg to simulate the hexapod robot model walking for all
periodic gaits and the geometry in order to derive the equations of the sub-constraint
workspaces for each hexapod’s leg. They are defined as the sub-constraint workspaces
volumes when the legs are moving without collision with each other and they are useful
to keep the legs stable from falling during each gait. A smooth gait was analyzed and
enhanced for each hexapod’s leg in two phases, stance phase and swing phase. The
equations of the stability margins are derived and computed for each gait. The
simulation results of our enhanced path planning of the hexapod robot approach whish’s
include all the gaits are statically stable and we are compared between all stability
margins for each gait. In addition, our results show clearly that the tripod gait is the
fastest gait while the wave and the ripple gaits are more stable than the tripod gait but
the last one has less peaks of stability margins than others.

DEVELOPMENT OF PC BASED MULTI-CHANNEL PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC ANALYZER

Sarmad Hassan Ahmed; Ali A. Ati

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2007, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 43-63

Abstract:
This paper presents the design and practical implementation of a multi-channel PC based logic analyzer. The analyzer has16 input channels with memory depth of 4K snapshots/channel and capture rate of up to 5 MHz. The analyzer parameters such as internal or external trigger source, falling or rising edge capture clock, state or timing measuring mode, number of pre-trigger and post-trigger snapshots, are made to be programmable and could be changed manually. The analyzer prototype consists of hardware part represented by the development of the interface ISA card and the software part that involves the kernel mode driver and the GUI program development. The developed prototype analyzer has been tested under different configuration schemes using 8085 SDK.

Design of a Stochastic Re-Configurable Artificial Neural Networks Using FPGA

Manal; Hannan A. R. Akkar; Mutaz S. Abdul-Wahab

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2009, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 72-94

Abstract:
This paper uses the theory of stochastic arithmetic as a solution for the FPGA implementation of a complex feed forward, multi layered neural network. Compared with the traditional digital implementations, the stochastic approach simplifies the computation involved and saves digital resources. The architecture combines stochastic computation techniques with a novel Look Up-Table-based that fully exploits the Look Up-Table structure of many FPGAs. Basic operations of simple ANN are mapped into a modular design. The system control module, random pulse generating module , bit stream generating module , LFSR_32(Liner Feedback Shift Register) sub module, modulator sub module, neuron module and bit stream converter module , are described in hardware using a schematic editor of the Foundation 4.1i, which is a software tool from Xilinx. Thus the modules can be parameterized, providing easy scalability of the system to the different applications constraints and requirements. The feasibility of the proposed ANN is demonstrated by testing it using two case studies. The objective of the first test is the to decomposition of Boolean Function sets (AND, OR, EXOR) the simulation results show that the design is able to find the obtainable values for the functions, while, the objective of the second test is to find the frequency recognition for square wave with different frequencies, the simulation results show that the design is suitable for using in this field.

Proposal of Creating Entity-Relationship Table from English Sentences Groups1

Maitham A. Naji

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2011, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 79-88

Abstract:
The aim of this research is to provide a computerized technique to build Entity Relationship Table (ERT) instead of Entity Relationship Diagram(ERD). The ERT contains Source Node Type (SNT) and Destination Node Type (DNT) which are either Entity or Attribute. Also, it contains the source and destination node and their relationship type; Source Node Relationship Type (SNRT) and Destination Node Relationship Type (DNRT).The verb presents the relationship name between nodes. The program in this research splits the relationship from the subject item then the relation will map to relationships dictionary to get real word presentation to the corresponding relationship words. The same process is repeated with the Complement group.

A Comparative Study on Security Features in MANETs Routing Protocols

Dr. Israa Tahseen Al-attar

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2015, Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 25-37

Abstract – Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) is a collection of multi-hop
wireless mobile nodes that communicate with each other without centralized control or
established infrastructure. MANETs has a wide range of applications, ranging from
mobile phone application to military applications. As the application of MANETs
increases, the attacks on MANETs also increase. Due to mobility of nodes, frequent link
breakage carry out, and it's widely use, MANET’s routing is considered as a challenging
job. A vast range of research is being conducted to keep routing in MANETs robust and
secure. One of the major research areas is routing privacy. This paper presents a
description of routing protocols that have the major challenges in ad hoc networks with a
particular focus on their characteristics, functionality, and security features and makes
their comparative analysis. Further, this study will help the researchers to get an
overview of the existing protocols and suggest which protocols may perform better with
respect to varying network scenarios.

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