About Journal

The Iraqi Journal of Computers, Communications, Control, and Systems Engineering (IJCCCE) is a quarterly engineering journal issued by the University of Technology /Baghdad, aiming to enrich the knowledge in computer, communication, and control fields.
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Journal Information

Publisher: University of Technology

Email:  ijccce@uotechnology.edu.iq

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Amjad J. Humaidi

Print ISSN: 1811-9212

Online ISSN: 2617-3352

Integrating Wearable Devices for Intelligent Health Monitoring System

Sondous Sulaiman Wali; Mohammed Najm Abdullah

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 1-14
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33103/uot.ijccce.21.4.1

It is known that many individuals suffer from chronic diseases such as heart disease, high blood pressure, and sleep apnea, which requires constant monitoring, which is only found in the hospital, and the high cost that the individual cannot afford, especially at present. This paper proposes a system through which an individual can monitor vital signs and can use the wearable device by himself without the need for assistance. Wearable devices have been used from the sensors where the proposed system uses six sensors which are the electrocardiogram, the pulse oximeter, heart rate, blood pressure, skin temperature, temperature, and humidity as it collects data and then transfers it via Wi-Fi to the microcontroller on the Internet of things. The results of the sensors have been successfully obtained. Finally, linked them to the Blynk platform that displays the desired results for the individual.

Detection and Classification of Leaf Disease Using Deep Learning for a Greenhouses’ Robot

shahad ahmed; Saman Hameed Ameen

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 15-28
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33103/uot.ijccce.21.4.2

Plant diseases are a severe threat to the environment, economy, and health. Early disease identification remains a challenging task in Iraq due to the scarce of the necessary resources and infrastructure. This paper uses various deep learning algorithms to detect different diseases on plant leaves and detect healthy ones, using an RGB camera as a crucial part of our real-time autonomous greenhouses' robot along with using two datasets, plant-village and cotton dataset, to investigate the best convolutional neural network architecture. The first dataset contained 10,190 images from the plant-village open datasets; it includes four crops with ten distinct classes of diseased and healthy leaves. Moreover, the cotton dataset contained 2,204 images for training and 106 images for testing; it has four classes of diseased and healthy plants and leaves. Different network architectures were tested in this paper for the best suitable lightweight architecture for our mobile robot. Results show that the best performance is 99.908% which achieved by the VGG16 network. The highest accuracy of VGG16 obtained in our research makes it the best tool for our autonomous plant disease detection robot.

Image Encryption Paillier Homomorphic Cryptosystem

Zainab Mohammed Muneef; Hala bahjat; Abdulmohsen Jaber Abdulhoseen

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 29-36
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33103/uot.ijccce.21.4.3

With the increasing use of media in communications, both academia and industry pay attention to the content security of digital images. This research presents a Homomorphic cryptosystem-based asymmetric picture encryption technique (Paillier). The algorithm is used for securing images that transmit over public unsecured channels. The Homomorphic property is used in this paper, which is comprised of three steps: key generation, encryption, and decryption. To realize such approach, the encryption cryptosystem must support additional operation over encrypted data. This cryptosystem can be effective in protecting images and supporting the construction of programs that can process encrypted input and produce encrypted output.

Data Hiding by Unsupervised Machine Learning Using Clustering K-mean Technique

Hiba Hamdi Hassan; Maisa'a Abid Ali Khodher

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 37-49
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33103/uot.ijccce.21.4.4

Steganography includes hiding text, image, or any sentient information inside another image, video, or audio. It aims to increase individuals’ use of social media, the internet and web networks to securely transmit information between sender and receiver and an attacker will not be able to detect its information. The current article deals with steganography that can be used as machine learning method, it suggests a new method to hide data by using unsupervised machine learning (clustering k-mean algorithm). This system uses hidden data into the cover image, it consists of three steps: the first step divides the cover image into three clusterings that more contrast by using k-means cluster, the selects a text or image to be converted to binary by using ASCII code, the third step hides a binary message or binary image in the cover image by using sequential LSB method. After that, the system is implemented. The objective of the suggested system is obtained, using Unsupervised Machine Learning (K-mean technique) to securely send sensitive information without worrying about man-in-the-middle attack was proposed. Such a method is characterized by high security and capacity. Through evaluation, the system uses PSNR, MSE, Entropy, and Histogram to hide the secret message and secret image in the spatial domain in the cover image.

An Enhanced Hybrid Edge-Cloud algorithm For Reducing IoT Service Delay

Rawaa Ammar Razooqi; hassan Jaleel; Gaida Muttasher

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 50-59
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33103/uot.ijccce.21.4.5

The Savvy Manufacturing plant could be a concept that communicates the conclusion goal of fabricating digitization. A Smart Factory, within the most common sense, profoundly digitized shop floor that collects and offers information persistently through associated computers, gadgets, and generations. In this work, the factory is represented by five types of sensors. The reading of the sensor values is sent to one of the Edge servers and cloud computing. One Edge server is selected based on calculating the time it takes for each server. The highest least time priority is chosen to receive the data coming from the sensors. This paper suggests a way to reduce the delay by using the edge server in addition to cloud computing by using methods that overcome any malfunction in one of the servers via another one that can work without the need to stop the factory systems.

Load Balancing and Detection of Distributed Denial of Service Attacks Using Entropy Detection

Hiba Salah Yaseen; Ahmed Al-Saadi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 60-73
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33103/uot.ijccce.21.4.6

Software Defined Network (SDN) is a modern network architecture that has a centralized controller. It is more flexible, and programmable due to the separation of the control plane from the data plane. However, Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks is one of the dangers that the SDN network is facing. It could attack and stop the controller from working, causing the whole system to be down. Moreover, DDoS attacks can target the hosts and the switches to stop the services for a long time as they could cause more damage to the network or datacenter. In this work, a proposed approach is utilized to protect datacenter networks and servers from DDoS attacks using entropy and real SDN-controller Python Network Operating system (POX) by redirect traffic to the edge of the datacenter to minimize the damage. The results of this experiment show how to detect abnormal traffics in an early stage and isolate them in a server outside the datacenter to distribute the huge amount of traffic in more than one server and avoid congestion on switches. Also, the throughput of the server was increased by about %16 during the suspected attack, this means maintaining the service until further analysis to be done on the traffic. These results are compared with the direct block mitigation method which was mostly used with the entropy detection method in previous researches. Moreover, this work is done to confirm whether the suspected traffic is an actual attack or not. Therefore, this method will decrease the false positives of detection.

Study of Cyber Security Effects on Wireless Sensors Networks

Shaymaa M. Naser; Yossra Hussain Ali

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 74-81
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33103/uot.ijccce.21.4.7

In recent two years, information systems have been adopted in most fields of
life due to the health state around the world. At the same time, the risk factor of
security attacks is increased sharply as well. These attacks consider different actions
toward damaging the data of systems or even making down their work. In this paper, a
study of cyber-threats (attacks) on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is presented. This
study illustrates the effects of the cyber-threats on the WSN according to the network
layers, as well as their privacy concerns. The outcome of this study is the classification
of these attacks that can lead to produce cyber-security systems which can prevent
them from damaging the involved information systems.

Speaker Recognition System Based on Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficient and Four Features

Ashraf Tahseen Ali; Hasanen Abdullah; Mohammed Natiq Fadhil

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 82-89
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33103/uot.ijccce.21.4.8

Biometrics signs are the most important factor in the human recognition field and considered an effective technique for person authentication systems. Voice recognition is a popular method to use due to its ease of implementation and acceptable effectiveness. This research paper will introduce a speaker recognition system that consists of preprocessing techniques to eliminate noise and make the sound smoother. For the feature extraction stage, the method Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCC) is used, and in the second step, the four features (FF) Mean, Standard Division, Zero-Cross and Amplitude, which added to (MFCC) to improve the results. For data representation, vector quantization has been used. The evaluation method (k-fold cross-validation) has been used. Supervised machine learning (SML) is proposed using Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA) classification algorithms. And the results obtained by the algorithm (QDA) varied between 98 percent and 98.43 percent, depending on the way of features extraction that was used. These results are satisfactory and reliable.

3D Textured Model Encryption Using 2D Logistic and 3D Lorenz Chaotic Map

Nashwan Alsalam Ali; Abdul Monem S Rahma; Shaimaa h. Shaker

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 90-103
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33103/uot.ijccce.21.4.9

The widespread of recent multimedia, including various 3D model applications in different domains of areas, may lead to 3D models being stolen and attacked by hackers. Moreover, 3D models must be protected from unauthorized users and when transmitting over the internet. Nowadays the 3D model protection is a very important issue. This paper proposed a scheme that provides high protection for the textured 3D model by implementing multiple levels of security. The first level of security is achieved by encrypting the texture map based on a key generated by a 2D Logistic chaotic map. The second level of security is implemented by modifying the vertices values of the 3D mesh based on keys generated by the 3D Lorenz chaotic map. The proposed scheme was implemented on various 3D textured models varying in the number of vertices and faces. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme has a good encryption and provides high security by completely deforms the whole texture and 3D mesh of the textured 3D model into the two levels. The encryption scheme has a large key space 10135 making the scheme resists violent attacks. The Hausdorff Distance (HD) and histogram metrics are adopted to calculate the matching degree between the original and extracted model. The results show that the original and extracted model are identical through the values of HD, which are approximate to zero, and the histogram visually is similar.

Timetabling Problem Solving Based on Improved Meerkat Clan Algorithm (IMCA)

Mohammed Abdulwahid Jebur; Hasanen Abdullah

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 4, Pages 104-113
DOI: https://doi.org/10.33103/uot.ijccce.21.4.10

The university courses timetabling problem (UCTP) is a big topic among academics and institutions since it occurs every academic year. In general, UCTP is the distribution of events across slots time for each room based on a list of restrictions provided in one semester, such as (hard constraint and soft constraint), with the objective of avoiding conflicts in such assignments. Hard constraints should never be breached when striving to satisfy as many soft constraints as possible. There are many different methods used in automating the problems of the university timetabling course in higher education institutions. This paper presents an improved algorithm for the Meerkat Clan to solve the UCTP. This is done by studying the behavior of the Meerkat Clan Algorithm and Specifying the points that are able to improve without changing the main behavior of the Meerkat Clan Algorithm. And by testing with four datasets of different sizes, good results were obtained by optimizing this algorithm.

Implement Wireless Transceiver System Based On Convolutional Coding; Aided by Soft-Bit Decoding

Israa Hazem Ali

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2018, Volume 18, Issue 1, Pages 49-55

The main aim with any modern digital communication systems is to provide error free data transmission. To achieve this aim, error control coding techniques are applied with these systems. In this paper, digital communication system was implemented based on convolutional code, aided by soft-bit decoding for error free transmission. Fixed length source encoder was represented with this work, and statistically described the output of the source encoder and save this description at the receiver as a priori knowledge about the source encode. These a priori knowledge were exploited at the receiver to improve the performance of the proposed system in term of BER by conceal the errors occurred through the transmission of information over AWGN channel, aided the convolutional encoder. Significant improvements were obtained with this proposed system.

Positively Invariant Sets in Sliding Mode Control Theory with Application to Servo Actuator System with Friction*

Dr. Shibly Ahmed AL-Samarraie

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2010, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 121-134

Abstract:
In this paper two invariant sets are derived for a second order nonlinear affine system using a sliding mode controller. If the state started in these sets, it will not leave it for all future time. The invariant set is found function to the initial condition only, from which the state bound is estimated and used when determining the gain of the sliding mode controller. This step overcomes an arithmetic difficulty that consists of calculating suitable controller gain value that ensures the attractiveness of the switching manifold. Also, by using a differentiable form for the approximate signum function in sliding mode controller formula, the state will converge to a positively invariant set rather than the origin. The size of this set is found function to the parameters that can be chosen by the designer, thus, it enables us to control the size of the steady state error. The sliding mode controller is designed to the servo actuator system with friction where the derived invariant sets are used in the calculation of the sliding mode controller gain. The friction model is represented by the major friction components; Coulomb friction, the Stiction friction, and the viscous friction. The simulation results demonstrate the rightness of the derived sets and the ability of the differentiable sliding mode controller to attenuate the friction effect and regulate the state to the positively invariant set with a prescribed steady state error.

UNIQUE LIPS FEATURES EXTRACTION

Prof. Dr. Abdul Monem S. Rahma; Dr. Abdul Hamza A. Abdul Karim

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2012, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 60-68

Speech recognition based on visual information such as the lip shape and its
movement is referred to as lip reading. The visual features are derived according to the
frame rate of the video sequence. The proposed work adopted in this paper is based
upon the lower part of the human face to extract the speaker sound relevant features
accurately and robustly from the inner edge of the lips and trace it acoustically to prove
its unique features and the possibility of merging it with sound features by measuring
their physiological or behavioral characteristics curves. The results were promising and
offered a good reaction: 94% - 100%.

Static Stability Analysis of Hexagonal Hexapod Robot for the Periodic Gaits†

Hind Z. Khaleel; Dr. Firas A. Raheem

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2014, Volume 14, Issue 3, Pages 10-20

Abstract –Hexagonal hexapod robot is a flexible mechanical robot with six legs. It
has the ability to walk over terrain. The hexapod robot likes insect so it has the same
periodic gaits. These gaits are tripod, wave and ripple gaits. Hexapod robot needs to
stay statically stable at all the times during each gait in order not to fall with three or
more legs continuously contacts with the ground. The safety static stability walking can
be indicated by the stability margin. In this paper we based on the forward, inverse
kinematics for each hexapod’s leg to simulate the hexapod robot model walking for all
periodic gaits and the geometry in order to derive the equations of the sub-constraint
workspaces for each hexapod’s leg. They are defined as the sub-constraint workspaces
volumes when the legs are moving without collision with each other and they are useful
to keep the legs stable from falling during each gait. A smooth gait was analyzed and
enhanced for each hexapod’s leg in two phases, stance phase and swing phase. The
equations of the stability margins are derived and computed for each gait. The
simulation results of our enhanced path planning of the hexapod robot approach whish’s
include all the gaits are statically stable and we are compared between all stability
margins for each gait. In addition, our results show clearly that the tripod gait is the
fastest gait while the wave and the ripple gaits are more stable than the tripod gait but
the last one has less peaks of stability margins than others.

IoT Monitoring System Based on MQTT Publisher/Subscriber Protocol

Narges A-hussein; Ayman D. Salman

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 75-83

In the past years, the scene has witnessed huge technological progress which made our lives simpler and flixper. After Wi-Fi and cellular communications networks’ improvements, with the parallel optimization of numerous embedded devices, momentum has risen globally and today gave us a concept that is the IoT or the Internet of Things. Where several contemporary technologies have been utilized and the developers have been advancing structures to collect data from sensor systems that may be sent to any part of the world over the Internet. The Internet of Things can be used for many purposes like controlling, tracking and managing systems. In this study, we presented the work of the MQTT internet routing protocol to exchange sensor information between two different devices. The IoT platform is about monitoring temperature and humidity in a smart home based on an MQTT protocol which makes this connection possible. However, the MQTT protocol works in publishing/ subscribing mode. The proposed work used an Esp8266NodeMCU as a publisher and Raspberry pi3 model (B) as a subscriber. Also, it used a dht11 sensor to measure the temperatures and humidity. The measurements were collected from sensors and alternated between the two devices through the MQTT broker (server). Node-Red and ThingSpeak designed as a website to share the data.

Smart Autonomous Wheelchair Controlled by Voice Commands-Aided by Tracking System

Farah F. Alkhalid; Bashra Kadhim Oleiwi

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2019, Volume 19, Issue 1, Pages 82-87

This study focuses on the design of an autonomous wheelchair based
smart driving features for disabled persons. The movement directions and
position tracking of the wheelchair are controlled and localized by pre-defined
voice commands and global positioning system (GPS), respectively. Arduino
microcontroller based on speaker dependent voice recognition module and
tracking system based on quad-board SIM808 has been used to help the
wheelchair navigation. The experimental tests of the proposed system have been
done and given satisfactory results in controlling the wheelchair and making a
call on demand. Hence the proposed system is a simple, easy to use and lowcost
hardware for designing.

FPGA-Based Multi-Core MIPS Processor Design

Sarah M. Al-sudany; .Ahmed S. Al-Araji1; Bassam M. Saeed

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 16-35

This research presents a study for multicore Reduced Instruction Set
Computer (RISC) processor implemented on the Field Programmable Gate
Array(FPGA).The Microprocessor without- Interlocked Pipeline Stages (MIPS)
processor is designed for the implementation of educational purposes, as well as it is
expected that this prototype of processor will be used for multimedia or big data
applications. 32- bit MIPS processor was designed by using Very High speed Hardware
Description Language (VHDL). Pipelined MIPS processor contains three parts that are :
data path 32-bit MIPS pipeline, control unit, and hazard unit. The single cycle MIPS
system was subdivided into five pipeline stages to achieve the pipeline MIPS processor.
The five parts include: instruction fetch (IF), Instruction Decode (ID), execution (EXE),
memory (MEM) and Write Back (WB). Three types of hazard: data hazard , control
hazard and strctural hazard are resolved. Certain components in the pipelined stage for
the design processor were iterated for four core SIMD pipelined processors. The MIPS is
developed using Xilinx ISE 14.7 design suite. The designed processor was implemented
successfully on Xilinx Virtex-6 XC6VLX240T-1FFG1156 FPGA. The total power
analysis of multi-core MIPS processor is obtanined 3.422 watt and the clock period was
7.329 ns (frequency: 136.444MHz).

Visible Light Fidelity Technology: Survey

Kawther Dawood Salman; Ekhlas Kadum Hamza

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2021, Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 1-15

Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) is particularly popular today. Every place has
hotspots to access the internet via Wi-Fi, including homes, offices, colleges, and other
public places. This increased number of users, and hence the use of bandwidth, has led to
radio spectrum congestion. Thus, in the year of 2011, Light-Fidelity (Li-Fi) was
introduced, which applies a visible light region for data transmission, to solve this radio
crisis problem. This visible part of the spectrum was 10,000 times big compared to the
part utilized in the Wi-Fi radio. Furthermore, Li-Fi was a sub-set of Visible Light
Communication (VLC), using Light-Emitting Diode (LED) bulbs for transmitting data
utilizing light-medium. This paper reviews the differences between Li-Fi technology and
wireless types. It Also focuses on the architecture, components, functioning, modulation
technologies, and applications of Li-Fi.

Design and Implementation of Autonomous Quadcopter using SITL Simulator

Hasan M. Qays; Bassim A. Jumaa; Ayman D. Salman

IRAQI JOURNAL OF COMPUTERS, COMMUNICATIONS, CONTROL AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, 2020, Volume 20, Issue 1, Pages 1-15

In recent years Quadcopter has been used in many applications such as military, security & surveillance, service delivery, disaster rescue and much more due to its flexibility of flying. In this paper, Quadcopter will be used for mail delivery between many locations that is received from the end user. The Quadcopter will execute an autonomous flight using the concept of companion PC. Raspberry PI 3 (RPI3) will control the Quadcopter by command the controller of the drone (Pixhawk) by using DroneKit-Python API to send MAVLink messages to the Ardupilot. This concept is useful to perform an additional task to the autopilot and provide such a smart capability like image processing and path planning which cannot be done by the flight controller alone. Basically, the idea has been stimulated and the code has been tested by using the SITL Simulator with MAVProxy under Ubuntu environment. The result of controlling the Quadcopter using Python script was excellent and give a motivation to implement the same script on a real Quadcopter. The implementation on real Quadcopter was perfect as it has given the same behavior as the SITL drone in the simulation.

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